Dyspareunia is a condition characterised by pain during sexual relations. It most often affects women and can be acute or chronic. Superficial or light dyspareunia is when the pain involves the vulva, the clitoris or the vagina and appears at the start of sexual contact, even with the slightest touch.
Profound or deep dyspareunia occurs when the penis is inserted into the vagina, and sometimes only during certain positions.
The causes of dyspareunia might include:
– Organic/physical: a local infection, uterine or ovarian diseases.
– Lack of vaginal lubrication: sexual relations without stimulation, menopausal decline in oestrogen.
Most of the urogenital diseases connected with the menopause follow a reduction in the production of estrogen by the ovaries. This involves the gradual thinning of genital epithelial tissues, vaginal and vulvar mucosa, which reduce in thickness and moistness becoming more fragile, irritable and sensitive to trauma.
For this reason hormonal therapy has been for a long time the gold standard treatment for postmenopausal symptoms.
In order to ease this pain, one must first of all conduct a gynaecological exam to identify the cause. Lubricants and oestrogen are often prescribed. Hyaluronic acid injections offer a revolutionary solution to this problem.